About Cellular Coenzymes

Coenzymes (Cofactors) can be divided into two broad groups: a) organic and inorganic cofactors

The first organic cofactor to be discovered was NAD+, which was identified by Arthur Harden and William Youndin 1906


Organic cofactors are small organic molecules (typically a molecular mass less than 1000 Da) that can be either loosely or tightly bound to the enzyme and directly participate in the reaction organic Main cellular cofactors: Vitamins can serve as precursors to many organic cofactors (e.g., vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12, niacin, folic acid) or as coenzymes themselves (e.g., vitamin C). However, vitamins do have other functions in the body.

Many organic cofactors also contain a nucleotide, such as the electron carriers NAD and FAD, and coenzyme A, which carries acyl groups. Most of these cofactors are found in a huge variety of species, and some are universal to all forms of life.


inorganic cofactors:  metal ions (iron, magnesium, manganese, cobalt, copper, zinc, and molybdenum) or iron-sulfur clusters (complexes of iron and sulfur atoms held within proteins by cysteinyl residues).


Vitamins and derivatives

Thiamine pyrophosphate derivative of Thiamine (B1)

NAD+ and NADP+ derivative of Niacin (B3) ADP

Pyridoxal phosphate derivative of Pyridoxine (B6)

Lipoamide derivative of Lipoic acid

Methylcobalamin derivative of Vitamin B12

Cobalamine derivative of Cobalamine (B12)

Biotin derivative of Biotin (H)

Coenzyme A derivative of Pantothenic acid (B5) ADP Acetyl group and other acyl groups Tetrahydrofolic acid derivative of Folic acid (B9)

Menaquinone derivative of Vitamin K

Ascorbic acid derivative of Vitamin C

Flavin mononucleotide derivative of] Riboflavin (B2)

Flavin adenine dinucleotide derivative of Riboflavin (B2) ADP Electrons

Coenzyme F420 derivative of Riboflavin (B2) Amino acids



Adenosine triphosphate

S-Adenosyl methionine

Coenzyme B

Coenzyme M

Coenzyme Q

Cytidine triphosphate





Nucleotide sugars 


Pyrroloquinoline quinone